Is Bibliography Single Or Double Spaced

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Two Styles in Turabian | Bibliography Style | Reference List Style 


Two Styles in Turabian

This section mentions the two primary ways of citing materials in Turabian before discussing each in more detail below.

Bibliography Style

Reference List Style

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Bibliography Style

This section discusses in greater detail the notes-bibliography style of compiling sources in a bibliography. 

General Format

  • A bibliography compiles each source cited in a dedicated section with single-spaced entries organized alphabetically.

Bibliography Page

  • Start the bibliography on its own page after the text.
  • Place "Bibliography" at the top center, just like a first level header.

Organization 

List each source alphabetically by author's last name, paying special attention to the following:

  • Multiple Sources by the Same Author
    • The first source by the author should be a standard full entry. All of the following sources can use the "3-em dash" substituted in the place of the author's name.
      • (A "3-em dash" is a long, continuous dash the length of three short dashes or hyphens.)
    • The following sources should be arranged alphabetically by title and placed immediately below the first entry. 
  • Sources Without an Author or Editor
    • The first letter of the title, or first part of the entry, should be the letter used to listing the source alphabetically. This is the only difference.

Spacing

Each entry is single-spaced with a hanging indent and an extra space between each entry. 

  • Hanging Indent: A hanging indent means that the first line is flush left, but each subsequent line is indented once, just like a paragraph is indented once.
  • Space Between Entries: While each entry's text is single-spaced each entry should have an extra space separating it from the next entry. (Note: the paper is double-spaced but the bibliography is single-spaced.)

Exclusions

  • Some sources are not included in the final bibliography.
  • Instances of sources that are excluded can be found on a case-by-case basis in our searchable lists of specific examples for citing books, citing journals, citing multimedia, and citing miscellaneous sources.

Online Sources

While online sources may be more difficult to obtain all the citation information for, be sure to include a stable URL or DOI, along with the date the information was accessed.

  • DOI
    • What is it: The DOI is the Digital Object Identifier, a more stable and reliable way of locating a website. 
    • When to use it: The DOI should be used in place of an URL whenever possible. 
    • How to use it: Copy and paste the exact DOI into the document to ensure complete accuracy.
    • Why use it: While an URL may change, the DOI more consistently helps readers find the same information.
  • URL
    • What is it: The URL is the Uniform Resource Identifier, a sort of address for locating a website. 
    • When to use it: If a DOI cannot be found, use the best possible URL. If a source provides a "preferred URL" for accessing an article or page, include the preferred URL. If not, the URL can be found in your web browser's address bar. Whenever possible, locate the preferred URL before using the address bar URL.
    • How to use it: Copy and paste the exact URL into the document to ensure complete accuracy.
    • Why use it: Including the URL helps readers consistently find the same information.

Sample and Examples

All of this information can be overwhelming, so it may be helpful to view a sample paper or example citations: 

Working with Different Types of Bibliographies:

  • The major types of bibliographies are: standard bibliography, single-author bibliography, selected bibliography, and annotated bibliography.

Standard Bibliography

  • A standard bibliography is the most commonly used and follows the guidelines provided above under "General Format."
  • Unless there is a specific reason to use another type of bibliography, this is the typical bibliography.

Single-Author Bibliography

  • A single-author bibliography uses a standard bibliography but additionally includes separate lists of sources produced by one author or group of authors.
  • This special instance should list the single-author bibliography on a separate page that is clearly labeled (Works of Author; Published Works of Author; etc.).

Selected Bibliography

  • A selected bibliography chooses to omit unimportant or uninteresting sources in order to direct readers to the essential sources or save space. If there is good reason and instructor approval, this type of bibliography should be labeled ("Selected Bibliography") and clearly describe the criteria for selection and omission in a headnote beneath the title.

Annotated Bibliography

  • An annotated bibliography chooses to describe the relevance or contents of each source in the bibliography.
  • This information can be included either in short phrases enclosed in brackets after the bibliographical entry, or in a paragraph of complete sentences included below the bibliographical entry.

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Reference List Style

This section discusses in greater detail the author-date style of compiling sources in a reference list. 

General Format

  • A reference list compiles each source cited in a dedicated section with single-spaced entries organized alphabetically and prominently featuring the publication date.

Reference List Page

  • Start the reference list on its own page after the text.
  • Place "References" at the top center of the page, just like a first level header.

Organization

List each source alphabetically by author's last name, paying special attention to the following:

  • Publication Date
    • The publication should immediately follow the name of the author. This allows the reader to quickly track a parenthetical citation back to the precise source in the reference list.
  • Include Full Citations
    • Each source used, and even some sources consulted but not referenced, should be listed in the reference list with complete bibliographical information. (There are no shortcuts or 3-em dashes used like in the bibliography style.)

Spacing

Each entry is single-spaced with a hanging indent and an extra space between each entry. 

  • Hanging Indent: A hanging indent means that the first line is flush left, but each subsequent line is indented once, just like a paragraph is indented once.
  • Space Between Entries: While each entry's text is single-spaced each entry should have an extra space separating it from the next entry. (Note: the paper is double-spaced but the Bibliography is single-spaced.)

Online Sources

While online sources may be more difficult to obtain all the citation information for, be sure to include a stable URL or DOI, along with the date the information was accessed.

  • DOI
    • What is it: The DOI is the Digital Object Identifier, a more stable and reliable way of locating a website. 
    • When to use it: The DOI should be used in place of an URL whenever possible.
    • How to use it: Copy and paste the exact DOI into the document to ensure complete accuracy.
    • Why use it: While an URL may change, the DOI more consistently helps readers find the same information.
  • URL
    • What is it: The URL is the Uniform Resource Identifier, a sort of address for locating a website. 
    • When to use it: If a DOI cannot be found, use the best possible URL. If a source provides a "preferred URL" for accessing an article or page, include the preferred URL. If not, the URL can be found in your web browser's address bar. Whenever possible, locate the preferred URL before using the address bar URL.
    • How to use it: Copy and paste the exact URL into the document to ensure complete accuracy.
    • Why use it: Including the URL helps readers consistently find the same information.

Sample and Examples

All of this information can be overwhelming, so it may be helpful to view a sample paper or example citations: 

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Material on this page adapted from Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 8th ed. In manual, see 3.2.2, 15.4, 16.2, 18.2.

APA Style® calls for a list of references instead of a bibliography.

The requirements of a reference list are that all references cited in the text of a paper must be listed alphabetically by first author's last name in the list of references and that all references listed must be cited within the text.

A bibliography, however, typically includes resources in addition to those cited in the text and may include annotated descriptions of the items listed.

In general, the list of references is double-spaced and listed alphabetically by first author's last name. For each reference, the first line is typed flush with the left margin, and any additional lines are indented as a group a few spaces to the right of the left margin (this is called a hanging indent).

For example:
APA Publications and Communications Board Working Group on Journal Article Reporting Standards.
      (2009). Reporting standards for research in psychology: Why do we need them? What might
       they be? American Psychologist, 63, 839–851. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.63.9.839

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