For other uses, see Welfare (disambiguation).
Well-being, wellbeing, or wellness is a general term for the condition of an individual or group. A high level of well-being means in some sense the individual or group's condition is positive.
According to Naci and Ioannidis,
Wellness refers to diverse and interconnected dimensions of physical, mental, and social well-being that extend beyond the traditional definition of health. It includes choices and activities aimed at achieving physical vitality, mental alacrity, social satisfaction, a sense of accomplishment, and personal fulfillment.
Three subdisciplines in psychology are critical for the study of psychological well-being:
- Developmental psychology, in which psychological well-being may be analyzed in terms of a pattern of growth across the lifespan.
- Personality psychology, in which it is possible to apply Maslow’s concept of self-actualization, Rogers’ concept of the fully functioning person, Jung’s concept of individuation, and Allport’s concept of maturity to account for psychological well-being.
- Clinical psychology, in which it may be asserted that the absence of mental illness constitutes psychological well-being.
There are two approaches typically taken to understand psychological well-being:
- Distinguishing positive and negative effects, and defining optimal psychological well-being and happiness as a balance between the two.
- Emphasizes life satisfaction as the key indicator of psychological well-being.
According to Guttman and Levy (1982) well-being is “...a special case of attitude”. This approach serves two purposes in the study of well-being: "developing and testing a [systematic] theory for the structure of [interrelationships] among varieties of well-being, and integration of well-being theory with the ongoing[when?] cumulative theory [clarification needed] development in the fields of attitude of related research”.
Diener: tripartite model of subjective well-being
Main article: Tripartite model of subjective well-being
Diener's tripartite model of subjective well-being is one of the most comprehensive models of well-being in psychology. It was synthesized by Diener in 1984, positing "three distinct but often related components of wellbeing: frequent positive affect, infrequent negative affect, and cognitive evaluations such as life satisfaction."
Cognitive, affective and contextual factors contribute to subjective well-being. According to Diener and Suh, subjective well-being is "...based on the idea that how each person thinks and feels about his or her life is important."
Carol Ryff: Six-factor Model of Psychological Well-being
Main article: Six-factor Model of Psychological Well-being
Carol Ryff's multidimensional model of psychological well-being postlated six factors which are key for well-being:[web 1]
- Personal growth
- Purpose in life
- Environmental mastery
- Positive relations with others
Corey Keyes: flourishing
Main article: Flourishing
According to Corey Keyes, who collaborated with Carol Ryff, mental well-being has three components, namely emotional or subjective well-being (also called hedonic well-being), psychological well-being, and social well-being (together also called eudaimonic well-being). emotional well-being concerns subjective aspects of well-being, in concreto, feeling well, whereas psychological and social well-being concerns skills, abilities, and psychological and social functioning.
Keyes model of mental well-being has received extensive empirical support across cultures.
Seligman: positive psychology
Main article: Positive psychology
Well-being is a central concept in positive psychology. Positive psychology is concerned with eudaimonia, "the good life", reflection about what holds the greatest value in life – the factors that contribute the most to a well-lived and fulfilling life. While not attempting a strict definition of the good life, positive psychologists agree that one must live a happy, engaged, and meaningful life in order to experience "the good life". Martin Seligman referred to "the good life" as "using your signature strengths every day to produce authentic happiness and abundant gratification".
Three paths to happiness
In Authentic Happiness (2002) Seligman proposed three kinds of a happy life which can be investigated:
- Pleasant life: research into the Pleasant Life, or the "life of enjoyment", examines how people optimally experience, forecast, and savor the positive feelings and emotions that are part of normal and healthy living (e.g., relationships, hobbies, interests, entertainment, etc.). Despite the attention given, Martin Seligman says this most transient element of happiness may be the least important.
- Good Life: investigation of the beneficial effects of immersion, absorption, and flow, felt by individuals when optimally engaged with their primary activities, is the study of the Good Life, or the "life of engagement". Flow is experienced when there is a positive match between a person's strength and their current task, i.e., when one feels confident of accomplishing a chosen or assigned task.[note 1]
- Meaningful Life: inquiry into the Meaningful Life, or "life of affiliation", questions how individuals derive a positive sense of well-being, belonging, meaning, and purpose from being part of and contributing back to something larger and more permanent than themselves (e.g., nature, social groups, organizations, movements, traditions, belief systems).
These categories appear neither widely disputed nor adopted by researchers across the 12 years that this academic area has been in existence.
In Flourish (2011) Seligman argued that the last category, "meaningful life", can be considered as 3 different categories. The resulting acronym is PERMA: Positive Emotions, Engagement, Relationships, Meaning and purpose, and Accomplishments. It is a mnemonic for the five elements of Martin Seligman's well-being theory:
- Positive emotions include a wide range of feelings, not just happiness and joy. Included are emotions like excitement, satisfaction, pride and awe, amongst others. These emotions are frequently seen as connected to positive outcomes, such as longer life and healthier social relationships.
- Engagement refers to involvement in activities that draws and builds upon one's interests. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi explains true engagement as flow, a feeling of intensity that leads to a sense of ecstasy and clarity. The task being done needs to call upon higher skill and be a bit difficult and challenging yet still possible. Engagement involves passion for and concentration on the task at hand and is assessed subjectively as to whether the person engaged was completely absorbed, losing self-consciousness.
- Relationships are all important in fueling positive emotions, whether they are work-related, familial, romantic, or platonic. As Dr. Christopher Peterson puts it simply, "Other people matter." Humans receive, share, and spread positivity to others through relationships. They are important not only in bad times, but good times as well. In fact, relationships can be strengthened by reacting to one another positively. It is typical that most positive things take place in the presence of other people.
- Meaning is also known as purpose, and prompts the question of "why". Discovering and figuring out a clear "why" puts everything into context from work to relationships to other parts of life. Finding meaning is learning that there is something greater than one's self. Despite potential challenges, working with meaning drives people to continue striving for a desirable goal.
- Accomplishments are the pursuit of success and mastery. Unlike the other parts of PERMA, they are sometimes pursued even when accomplishments do not result in positive emotions, meaning, or relationships. That being noted, accomplishments can activate the other elements of PERMA, such as pride, under positive emotion. Accomplishments can be individual or community-based, fun- or work-based.
Contributing factors and research-findings
Main article: Well-being contributing factors
Research on positive psychology, well-being, eudaimonia and happiness, and the theories of Diener, Ryff, Keyes and Seligmann covers a broad range of levels and topics, including "the biological, personal, relational, institutional, cultural, and global dimensions of life."
- ^Huseyin Naci; John P. A. Ioannidis, (June 11, 2015). "Evaluation of Wellness Determinants and Interventions by Citizen Scientists". JAMA. 314: 121. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.6160. PMID 26068643.
- ^Ryff, Carol D. (1 January 1989). "Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 57 (6): 1069–1081. doi:10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2069.
- ^ abRyff, C. D., & Keyes, C. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(4), 719–727.
- ^ abGuttman, Levy, Louis, Shlomit (February 1982). "On the definition and varieties of attitude and wellbeing". Social Indicators Research. 10 (2): 159–174. doi:10.1007/bf00302508.
- ^Tov & Diener (2013), Subjective Well-Being. Research Collection School of Social Sciences. Paper 1395. http://ink.library.smu.edu.sg/soss_research/1395
- ^Iolanda Costa Galinha & José Luís Pais-Ribeiro (2011), Cognitive, affective and contextual predictors of subjective wellbeing. International Journal of Wellbeing, 2(1), 34–53. doi:10.5502/ijw.v2i1.3
- ^Diener, Suh, Ed, Eunkook (2000). Culture and Subjective Well-being. A Bradford Book. p. 4.
- ^ abRobitschek, Christine; Keyes, Corey L. M. "Keyes's model of mental health with personal growth initiative as a parsimonious predictor". Journal of Counseling Psychology. 56 (2): 321–329. doi:10.1037/a0013954.
- ^Keyes, Corey L. M. (2002-01-01). "The Mental Health Continuum: From Languishing to Flourishing in Life". Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 43 (2): 207–222. doi:10.2307/3090197. JSTOR 3090197.
- ^Joshanloo, Mohsen; Lamers, Sanne M. A. (2016-07-01). "Reinvestigation of the factor structure of the MHC-SF in the Netherlands: Contributions of exploratory structural equation modeling". Personality and Individual Differences. 97: 8–12. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2016.02.089.
- ^Gallagher, Matthew W.; Lopez, Shane J.; Preacher, Kristopher J. (2009-08-01). "The Hierarchical Structure of Well-Being". Journal of Personality. 77 (4): 1025–1050. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.2009.00573.x. ISSN 1467-6494. PMC 3865980. PMID 19558444.
- ^Seligman, M.E.P. (2009). Authentic Happiness. New York: Free Press.
- ^ abDavid Sze (2015), The Father of Positive Psychology and His Two Theories of Happiness
- ^Wallis, Claudia (2005-01-09). "Science of Happiness: New Research on Mood, Satisfaction". TIME. Retrieved 2011-02-07.
- ^Best Benefit of Exercise? Happiness, Robin Loyd, Fox News, May 30, 2006.
- ^"THE WORLD QUESTION CENTER 2011— Page 2". Edge.org. Retrieved 2011-02-07.
- ^ abcSeligman, M. E. P. (2011). Flourish: A Visionary New Understanding of Happiness and Well-being. New York: Free Press. Ch 1
- ^"The Pursuit of Happiness".
- ^"Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi TED talk".
- ^"Other People Matter".
- ^"Using Positive Psychology in Your Relationships".
- ^"Why do You do What You Do?".
- ^"The Science of a Happy Startup".
- Printed sources
- 'Well-being' http://philpapers.org/browse/well-being/
- 'Desire-satisfaction accounts of well-being' http://philpapers.org/browse/desire-satisfaction-accounts-of-well-being
- 'Objective accounts of well-being' http://philpapers.org/browse/objective-accounts-of-well-being
- 'Hedonistic accounts of well-being' http://philpapers.org/browse/hedonist-accounts-of-well-being
- 'Perfectionist accounts of well-being' http://philpapers.org/browse/perfectionist-accounts-of-well-being
- 'Hybrid accounts of well-being' http://philpapers.org/browse/hybrid-accounts-of-well-being
- Hooray for GDP! GDP as a measure of wellbeing (2012-12-22), Nicholas Oulton, Center for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR)
- Happiness and satisfaction are not everything: Toward wellbeing indices based on stated preference (2015-01-02), Daniel J. Benjamin, Associate Professor of Economics, Cornell University; Samantha Cunningham, Project specialist, University of Southern California; Ori Heffetz, Associate Professor of Economics, Cornell University; Miles Kimball, Professor of Economics and Survey Research, University of Michigan; and Nichole Szembro, Assistant Professor of Economics, Trinity College. Center for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR)
- Busts hurt more than booms help: New lessons for growth policy from global wellbeing surveys (2014-10-08), Jan-Emmanuel De Neve, Michael I. Norton, Center for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR)
- Science of Wellbeing. Measurements and Techniques Annie Wilson, 2014, Inner light publishers
- Ditch the ‘wellness’ logs, charts, apps and get a life (2015-01-18). "Most personal productivity measures are often a waste of time." The Financial Times
- Ryff and Keyes 1995. The Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being. PWB – 42 Item version scale.
- Racism Exposed in Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness
- Racism in The Color of Fear
- Racism in William Shakespeare's Othello
- The Hard Times of Blacks in the South in the 1940's
- Derrick Bell's "Space Traders"
- Racism in To Kill A Mockingbird by Harper Lee
- Pleasantville Racism Paper
- Racism in Harlem by Langston Hughes
- Prejudice in Heart of Darkness: Racism is a Relative Term
- "The Lemon Orchard", by Alex La Guma: Exploring Stable Meaning, the Perversion of Nature, and Discursive Communities
- Police Prejudice and Racism
- Attitudes, Racism and Culture
- Overcoming Racism
- In what ways does one's race/ethnicity shape one's life-chances in contemporary society?
- Race, Racism and My Community
- Racism and Sexism in Toni Morrison's Sula
- Racism in Othello by William Shakespeare
- Racism: The Implicit Associations Test
- Poets Write Feelings of Racism in Still I Rise In Harlem by Langston Hughes and Stil I Rise by Maya Angelou
- Racism: A Social Problem
- The Effects of Scientific Racism on Black Women
- The Artificial Nigger: Truths Behind Racism
- A Conversation about Race: A Documentary by Craig Bodeker
- Racism and Slavery
- Racism, Prejudice, and Discrimination in the Workplace
- Racism in the Media: Misrepresentation of Minorities
- Huck Finn: The Twisting Tides Of Portrayal - Racism
- Racism In The NFL
- Racism in Disney Movies
- Huck Finn And Racism
- Du Bois vs. Cox
- Chinua Achebe's Heart of Darkness and Racism
- Racism in Shakespeare's Othello
- Racism and Discrimination in the US
- Phoenix's Hardships and Racism in A Worn Path
- Racism Revealed: Hurricane Katrina
- Racism in Song of Solomon, Push and Life of Olaudah Equiano
- Racism in Tracking
- Black on Black Racism
- Racism in Disney Films
- Why Is Institutional Racism so Important to Our Understanding of Racial Inequalities in Britain Today?
- Racism on College Campuses
- Institutionalized Racism, Group Thinking and Jury Bias
- The Effects of Racism in Education
- Racism in Our Society
- Prejudice and Racism in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
- How Country Lovers and the Gold Cadillac Tackle Racism
- Racism in Ernest Gaines's A Lesson Before Dying
- Different Types of Racial Discrimination
- Racism Kills Thoughts in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee
- Origins of Racism
- Blazing Saddles Research
- Racism In The Movies
- Racism Exposed in Fences, by August Wilson
- Sexism, Prejudice, and Racism in Lee's To Kill A Mockingbird
- Racism in William Shakespeare’s Othello
- Racism in Health-care
- Definition Essay: Racism
- Racism in the Criminal Justice System
- Racism in Deadly Unna by Phillip Gwynne
- Racism and Sexism in the Bluest Eye
- The Existance of Racism
- Aspects of Racism
- Why Is Shakespeares Othello Still Relevant in Todays Audiences?
- Racism in the Sports Pages
- Still I Rise by Maya Angelou Literary Analysis Essay
- A Soldier's Play
- Bell Hooks' A Revolution of Values: The Promise of Multicultural Change
- Huckleberry Finn ( Huck Finn ) - Racism
- Protesting Against Racism at the 1968 Olympics
- Fences, by August Wilson
- Racism in America Today
- Racism in Family Guy Supports Stereotypes
- Lies My Teacher Told Me
- Immunizing Society Against Discrimination
- Hines Ward: Experiences with Racism
- Women Voicing Their Pain
- Racism, Revenge, the War without Mercy, and the Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb
- The Acts of Racism In The 20th Century
- Taking a Look at Environmental Racism
- The Stories That Changed My Perspective on Racism and Ethnicity
- Country Lovers vs. The Gold Cadillac
- Why Racism Is an Issue in Need of Solution
- Racism in the Unites States
- Two Colors One Land
- How Is Racism Presented in the Novel of Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry?
- Feature Article Racism- to Kill a Mockingbird Etc
- Scientific Racism and Antisemitism
- Racism, Racial Profiling and Segregation in America
- Divine Wind - Racism
- Holocaust: A Result of Racism